I would like to offer 3 suggestions:
1. get a service manual for your car and read it from cover to cover.
2. enroll in a basic auto shop class.
3. find a mechanic that you trust,,,and while he is repairing your car,,you can ask him the names of the different parts.
now if you follow suggestions 1. and 2. ,,with # 3. you will see everything very clearly.
As for the starter,,it is a device that is cylindrical in shape,,about the size of a 1 lb coffee can,,,is is mounted on the side of the engine,,,there should be 2 wires going to it,,,a big one,,the big one is the positive cable from the battery,,,and a smaller wire,,,the smaller wire comes from your ignition switch.
You know that thing you busted out because the key wouldn't turn,,,ya that thing.